Chronology of Kaliyuga

    02-Dec-2020
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 -Dr. M. L. Raja
 
If we derive the dates based on the epigraphic inscriptional evidence of Kaliyuga, the historical chronology of our nation becomes more accurate and more correct 
 
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In the ancient texts of our nation, time is measured both in micro and macroscopic units. Puranic texts like Vishnu Puranam (1:3:8 to 10) and SreemadBhagavatam (3:11:33) describemacro time. VarivasyaRahasyam (vv.12cd, 13 & 16 cd) describes micro time. In the same way, Astronomical texts like Surya Siddhanta 1:11 to 27, MahaAryabhattaSiddhanta 1:15 to 20,Brahma SphutaSiddhanta 1:4 to 14, VatesvaraSiddhanta 1:7 to 10 andSiddhantaSiromani 1: 5 to 27mention the time division in micro as well as macroscopic units. These Puranic and Astronomical texts describe that the life time of Brahma is 432,00,00,000 x 2 x360 x 100 years, i.e. 3,11,04,000,00,00,000 human years. The smallest unit of time mentioned in these ancient texts is Truti i.e. 1/1,12,500 second.
 
Life time of Brahma has 2 x 360 x 100 Kalpa. One Kalpa has 432 Crore human years and of 14 Manvantra of 30,84,48,000 human years, including Sandhi period. OneManvantra has 71 Mahayuga and their Sandhi period. Sandhi Period is equal to 17,28,000 human years (Years of Kruta or Satya yuga). OneMahayuga is of 43,20,000 human years, i.e.17,28,000 years of Kruta +12,96,000 years of Treta + 8,64,000 years of Dvapara + 4,32,000 humanyears of Kaliyuga.Here, 360 human yearsare equal to one Divya year which is again equal to 12 Pitru years. At present we are living in the first day of 51st year of Brahmaand in SvetavarahaKalpa, 7thManvantara (Vaivasvata), 28thMahayuga and inKaliyugaPrathama Bhaga (as per Sankalpa).Now as per this calculation, we are living in the first part of Kaliyuga of 28thMahayuga. The beginning of this Kaliyuga of 28thMahayuga of 7thManvantara of SvetavarahaKalpais the epoch of the present Kaliyuga.
 

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In the ancient texts, the chronology is often counted from the beginning of Kaliyuga i.e. Epoch of the present Kaliyuga. BhavishyaPurana, inits Sloka 3:1:7:7 & 8, mentions that King Pramara of Agni Vamsa ofSama Veda started his dynasty at Ujjain in 2710th year of Kali yuga. In the same text, the Sloka3:1:7:14 and 15 mention that King Vikramaditya of this dynasty who started VikramaSamvat, born in 3000thyear of Kaliyuga. Jyotirvidabharanam of Kalidasa,in Sloka22:21, mentions thatKalidasa started writing this text in Vaikasi Month of 3068thyear of Kali yuga and completed in Karthika Month.Jyotirvidabharanam of Kalidasain its Sloka 10:22, mentions that King Vikramaditya, Astronomer Varahamihira were contemporary to Kalidasa. Thus, these three great personalities of ancient period, lived around 3050 years after the beginning of Kaliyuga. Further this text mentions,in itsSloka 10:110 to 114, that 3044 years after King Yudhishthira, King Vikramaditya started his VikramaSamvat and 135 years after thisVikramaSamvat, King Salivahana would start his Salivahana Saka. He even mentioned future Kings like Vijayabhinandana, Nagarjuna and Bali.Thus, in the year 3044 of Kaliyuga,VikramaSamvat began and in 3179th year of Kaliyuga,Salivahana Saka began, becauseJayabhyudaya Yudhishthira Saka had begun at Kaliyuga beginning. VruddhaGarga mentioned that Saptarishi (Great Bear) were at Magha Nakshatra at KaliDvapara Yuga Junction.Varahamihira mentioned in his Brihat Samhita, at its 3rdsloka 13thAdhyaya, thatSaptarishi were at Magha Nakshatra when Yudhishthitira was King. This shows that Kali Dvaprayuga junction and the period of Yudhishthira are one and the same in terms of time.
 

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From the details given in Purana and Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, we can derive the correct chronology of our nation, from the time of Mahabharata war and Kaliyuga beginning. It also helps to fix the date of Mahabharata war.Besides, calculating from the year of Kaliyuga beginning, we can derive the period of Sri Krishna, Veda Vyasa and the year of Bhagavad Gita
VatesvaraSiddhnata 10thsloka of 1st section of 1st chapter, SisyadhiVriddhida Tantra of Lallacarya 12thsloka of 1stAdhyaya, Mahabhaskariyam of Bhaskara 4thsloka of 1stAdhyaya, Laghubhaskariyam of Bhaskara 4thsloka of 1stAdhyaya mention that in 3179th year of Kali yuga, Salivahana Saka began.SiddhantaSiromani of Bhaskaracarya in Grahaganitadhyaya, Madhyamadhikara, Kalamanadhyaya, 28thsloka mentions that Sakanrupa Era came to an end in 3179 years of Kaliyuga, at which Salivahana Saka began.Varahamihirain his Brihat Samhita mentioned in the 3rdsloka of 13thAdhyaya that 2526 years after Yudhishthira ofPanchaPandava, the era of the Saka King (Sakanrupa Eraof Cyrus II) began. King Yudhishthira went to heaven 25 years after the beginning of Kaliyuga. Thus, in 2551st(2526 + 25) year of Kali yuga,Sakanrupa Era of Cyrus II began. Thus, by fixing the year of Kali yuga beginning, we can correctly derive the Epoch of Cyrus II, the period of Vikramaditya of Ujjain, Varahamihira, Kalidasa and Salivahana.
 
In the same way, the date of AdiSankara can also be correctly derived. Theyear of Birth of AdiSankara is given in the ancient Sanskrit text PraceenaSankaraVijaya (Sushama), in BhoodaSankya. It mentions that in Kaliyuga(Tishya), Anala,Sevati, Bana, Netra = 3, 9, 5, 2 = 2593(AnganaamVaamatoGati), Vaikasa month, PunarvasuNakshatram, is the year of birth of AdiSankara. The Sanskrit verse is,
 
“Tishyeprayaatyanalasevatibaananetre
yonandanedinamanaamavutakatvabaaji
Raadeaditerutuninigatamastralagne
AbyahootavaanSivagurussa ca Sankareti”
 
The year of Siddhi of AdiSankara is given in Punya Sloka Manjari, 4thsloka, in Katapayaati Sankhyaas, in Kali (Kaler), Saracaraabde = Sa 5, ra 2, ca 6, ra 2 = 2625 (AngaanaamVaamatoGati), Rakthaakshi year, Vaikasi month, SuklapakshaEkadasi at the age of 32 (phala, pha =2, la = 3). The Sanskrit verse is,
 
PhalesvasminsvaayushyapiSaracarabteapi ca Kaler
vililyeRaktaakshinyadhiivRushasitaikaadasi pare
(Refer DeivathinKural, 5th Volume, Sankara Kala Nirnayam, Pages 760 to 780). Thus the date of AdiSankara can be fixed correctly.
 
Besides, the date of Mahabharata War can also be fixed correctly. Mahabharata text of Veda Vyasa mentions that the war was fought at the end of Dvaparayuga and Kaliyuga would begin very soon. There was just 36 + years of difference from the year of Mahabharata war to the beginning of Kaliyuga. (Refer Mahabharata Text of Veda Vyasa, Adiparva 2:13, Vanaparva 149:39, Santi Parva 332/339/340 Adhyaya, Sree Krishna Avatara at Dvapara Kali junction, Streeparva 25:44, MausalaParva 1:1, 3 & 7, 2:18 to 21 & 24, 3:7& My book “Astronomical Evidence of the Date of Mahabharata War” based on Astronomy and Trigonometric Mathematical Calculations described in ancient Astronomical Texts of our Nation and the book is available as Kindle Edition in amazon.in). Thus, the year of Mahabharata war can be fixed.
 
Purana, especially Vishnu, Matsya, Brahmanda, Vayu and SreemadBhagavatamdescribe the chronology of Pandava dynasty, Ikshvaku Dynasty and Magadha Empire and their contemporary Kings ruling various parts of our Nation from the year of Mahabharata war up to Gupta period. These Purana also mention that Kali yuga began immediately after Sree Krishna left the world. Refer Vishnu Purana 4th part 21 to 24thAdhyaya,MatsyaPurana 271 to 273rdAdhyaya,BrahmandaPurana 2nd part 3rd portion 74thAdhyaya,Vayu PuranaUttarardham 37thAdhyaya (99thAdhyaya),SreemadBhagavatham 9thSkantha 22nd Adhyaya,12thSkantha 1stAdhyaya.Thus, the date of Gautama Buddha, who was contemporary to Bimbisara and Ajatasatru of Sisunaga Dynasty of Magadha Empire can be fixed. In the same way, dates of Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya and Asoka of Magadha Empire can be derived easily.
 
Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, an ancient Sanskrit text, describes the Chronology of Magadha Empire from the year of Mahabharata War up to Gupta Period.It details the Saptarishi or Laukabda Era.Saptarishi is Great Bear constellation, where the seven major stars are named after seven famous rishis and Arundhatee is the star that always stays withVasishtha star.As per this text, Saptarishi will be stationed for 100 years, in every Nakshatra situated in the ecliptic belt in which the Earth revolves round the Sun. Thus, one complete revolution occurs in 2700 years.Saptarishi stayed in MaghaNakshatra, 75 years before the beginning of Kaliyuga and 25 years after that. Then it went to AshleshaNakshatra, when Yudhishthira went to heaven i.e. after 25 years of Vanavasa, at which Laukikabda era began.The text also mentions that Kaliyuga began when Sri Krishna left the world. The text mentions that at the time of Mahapadma Nanda,Saptarishi will be at SravanaNakshatra (1500 years in retrograde). Saptarishi will be at 24thNakshatra when Andhra Satavahana will be ruling and near the end of their rule, it will be at 27th(Ashlesha)Nakshatra and Gupta rule will begin at this period of time.When Saptarishi reaches Punarvasu, Gupta Empire will start downfalling and when it reaches Purva BhadrapadaNakshatra, Magadha will be in the hands of Pala Kings of Bengal.
 
Hence from the details given in Purana andKaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, we can derive the correct chronology of our nation, from the time of Mahabharata war and Kaliyugabeginning. It also helps to fix the date of Mahabharata war.Besides, calculating from the year of Kaliyuga beginning,we can derive the period of Sri Krishna, Veda Vyasa and the year of Bhagavad Gita.
 
Hence, the date of Mahabharata war and the KaliyugaEpoch can be a twin sheet anchor in the history and chronology of our Nation.
 
The practice of mentioning events and their period in Kaliyuga years was prevalent throughout the nation uniformly. Besides 11 inscriptions mention the date of inscription in Kaliyuga days. This shows that our ancestors knew time calculation and were mathematical experts. Further it proves that they followed Luni Sola cycles
 
Thus, it is very essential to know the year of Kaliyuga beginning i.e. Kaliyuga Epoch. The best concrete and conclusive proof is epigraphic inscriptional evidence. Now, in my book, “KALI YUGA: Inscriptional Evidence”, 436 epigraphic inscriptions are detailed with authentic proofs. It also includes a foreign evidence from Southern part of Thailand. (Book is available at amzon.in & Flipkart or from the Book store, Blue Rose Publishers). These inscriptions can be cross checked and cross verifiable, as they mention along with Kaliyuga year, either one or two other eras also. The other erasmentioned in these inscriptions are Salivahana Saka, VikramaSamvath, Laukikabda Era, Kollam Era, Kochi Date and Common Era. More than half of the inscriptions give the regnal years of rulers also. Thus, these inscriptional evidences are cross verifiable. They were issued by the rulers of almost all the dynasties of this Nation, in almost all the languages of this Nation and are found in almost all the parts of our Nation. Their dates show that the practice of mentioning the period in Kali yuga years was followed in our Nation continuously and uninterruptedly for at least more than 1300 years. The common people also used Kali Epoch to describe their period and events. Thus, the practice of mentioning events and their period in Kaliyuga years was prevalent throughout the nation uniformly. Besides 11 inscriptions mention the date of inscription in Kaliyuga days. This shows that our ancestors knew time calculation and were mathematical experts. Further it proves that they followed Luni Sola cycles.
 
These 436 epigraphic inscriptions prove concretely, conclusively and assertively that Kaliyuga began in 3101 B.C.E.
Based on this, we derive the historical chronology of our Nation.Thus, if we adopt and derive the dates based on the epigraphic inscriptional evidence of Kaliyuga, which conclusively prove that the Epoch of Kaliyuga as 3101 B.C.E., the Historical Chronology of our Nation becomes more accurate and more correct. I submit the above article for the positive and knowledgeable considerations of the scholars, so that the truth will sustain and reach every corner of this world.